miércoles, 7 de diciembre de 2016

LA PRONÙNCIA

La pronùncia


a
always a like in "father" and never a like in "apple"
b/v
a.) b at beginning of a word or after m or n
b.) p at end of a word or before an s
c.) everywhere else: soft v produced without touching teeth to lower lip (many say this is actually more of a soft b, so it's really up to what the learner hears and can reproduce)
c
a.) + e,i = s
b.) k everywhere else
ç
s
d
a.) voiced th in "that" when between two vowels or between an r and a vowel
b.) t at end of a word
c.) d everywhere else
e
a.) sometimes like ay in way, same sound as Spanish e (sometimes accented thus: é )
b.) sometimes like e in "get" (sometimes accented thus: è ), equivalent to French "ai" in "américaine"
c.) neutral vowel that sounds like the first a in "separate" [sep-uh-rayt], essentially same as the e in French "le"; this sound of e occurs whenever it appears in an unstressed syllable
j/ge/gi
French j sound, much like s in vision
g
a.) g sound in "girl" when not followed by e or i
b.) k at end of a word
gu
+ i, e = g in "girl"
gua/guë/güi
g is essentially silent, thus making the combinations sound like "wa," "way," and "we," respectively
h
always silent
i
a.) y when at beginning of word or between two vowels
b.) ee in "keep" unless rule from a.) applies or unless i is in a diphthong/triphthong
ll
like the "lli" in "million" (corresponds to "lh" in Portuguese and "gl" in Italian), thus an English y sound with the tongue touching the roof of the mouth. however, many speakers today (as is the overwhelming case in Spanish as well) simply make a sound that corresponds to the English y
l·l
"ela geminada"; pronounced as a single l
n
m when before b/v in a word or phrase (e.g. enviar [em-bee-AH], un vas [oom BAHS] )
ny
like ny in "canyon" (corresponds to Spanish ñ, Portuguese nh, or French/Italian gn)
nys
same as ny but with the s being pronounced sh
inc/enc
when found as last syllable of a word: first one (-inc) corresponds to English -ing but with a very slight or even more pronounced k sound afterwards depending on the speaker or even the specific word (much like how in French the "c" is pronounced in "donc" but not in "blanc"). Same applies for -enc, though instead of corresponding to English -ing, it more corresponds to -ang like in the word "pang"
o
a.) sometimes open o like o in "dog" (sometimes accented thus: ò)
b.) sometimes closed o like o in "row" (sometimes accented thus: ó) same sound as Spanish o
c.) oo in "boot" when found in unstressed syllable (e.g. this occurs for every -o ending in the first person  present tense conjugation of regular verbs like "parlo" or "surto")
qu
a.) + e, i = k
b.) + a, u, o = kw
+ e, i = kw
r
a.) trilled when at beginning of word or when doubled (pretty much like in Spanish)
b.) essentially like d in "dad" when between two vowels
c.) silent at end of word with some exceptions, the most notable being the preposition "per"
NB: silent r at end of infinitive is pronounced when infinitive is followed by a weak pronoun (e.g. dir [dee] but dir-se [DEER-suh]
s
a.) z when between two vowels. NB liason occurs generally when a word ending in s is followed by a vowel or mute h (e.g. els agrada [uhl-za-GRAH-thuh] )
b.) s everywhere else
t
silent after n or l when at the end of a word, but English t everywhere else
u
always oo in "boot"
v
see rules for Catalan b
x
a.) sh in ship when at beginning of word or in combination "-ix"
b.) x in "taxi" when between two vowels
ex + vowel
egz just like in French and English
ex + consonant
eks also like in French and English
z
always z as in "zebra"

It should be assumed that any letter not treated above (but still found in the Valencian alphabet) has essentially the same pronunciation as in English (i.e. m, l, etc.)

Valencian Consonant Combinations, Diphtongs and Triphthongs
tj/tg/dj
j in "jump"
tz
dz in "adze"
tx/ig
ch in "chip"
ou
o in "row"
oi
oy in "boy"
au
ow in "cow"
ei
ay in "bay"
ui
wee in "week"
ai
"eye"
iu
"you"
eu
no real English equivalent, simply try to pronounce both vowels quickly together
iai
"yi" in "yikes!"
uai
"why"
iau
same as English exclamation of pain "yow!"
ieu
no English equivalent: essentially "eu" with a y sound at beginning
ueu
no English equivalent: essentially "eu" with a w sound at beginning

NB: in the combinations oix, oig, aig, aix, uix, etc. there is NO acting diphthong. The i present in those combinations is linked to the following x or g and not the preceding vowel (e.g. vaig [bahch] and not [bye-ch], caixa [kah-shuh] and not [keye-shuh] ). Basically "ix" and "ig" are treated as single letters.

Stress


a.) If a word ends in an unstressed vowel, an untressed vowel + s, the combination "-en", or the combination "-in", then the stress of the word is on the penultimate, or second-to-last syllable (e.g. cotxe [COHCH-uh] "car", cotxes [COHCH-uhs] "cars", parlen [PAR-luhn] "they speak", parlin [PAR-leen] "they speak (present subjunctive)")

b.) If a word ends in a consonant other than s (even if that consonant, notably r, is not pronounced) or ends in "-an", "-on", "-un", then the stress of that word is on the final syllable (e.g. estimar [uh-stee-MAH] "to love", perdut [puhr-THUT] "lost", parlaran [par-lah-RAN] "they will speak", Ramon [rrah-MOHN] man's name, algun [al-GOON] "some").

c.) If word has an accent on any vowel, the first two rules are ignored and the stress falls on the syllable containing the accented vowel (e.g. català [kah-tah-LAH] Catalan, telèfon [tuh-LEH-foon].

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